Filmmaking is the process of making the film, as a rule, in the sense of movies intended for a wide theatrical release. Film production involves several separate stages including an initial story, idea, or Commission, script, casting, filming, sound recording and production preparation, editing and screening the finished product before an audience that may result in the release of the film and the exhibition. The movie takes place in many places around the world in different economic, social, and political contexts, and using a variety of technologies and cinematic techniques.
1. Stages of production. (Этапы производства)
Film production consists of five main stages:
- Production: raw footage and other elements for the film were recorded during filming.
- Post-production: image, sound, and visual effects of the film edited and combined into a finished product.
- Pre-production: mechanisms and preparations were made for shooting, such as hiring actors and crew, choosing locations and building sets.
- Distribution: the completed film was distributed in the market and displayed in movie theaters and / or released on home video.
- Development: the first stage in which to create ideas for film rights to books / plays are bought etc., and wrote the script. Project funding must be requested and obtained.
1.1. Stages of production. Development. (Развитие)
At this stage, the project producer selects a story, which may come from books, games, movie, True story, video game, comic book, graphic novel, or original idea etc after Identifying theme or underlying message, the producer works with writers to prepare a synopsis. Further, they produce by-step outline, which breaks the story in one paragraph scenes that concentrate on dramatic structure. Then they prepare a medicine from 25 to 30 page description story its mood, and characters. This usually has little dialogue and stage direction, but often contains drawings that help visualize key points. Another way is to produce a scriptment once prepared a summary.
Next, a screenwriter writes the script for several months. The screenwriter may rewrite it several times to improve dramatization, clarity, structure, characters, dialogue, and overall style. However, producers often skip the previous steps and the development of the scenarios that investors and other interested parties assess through process called script coverage. The film distributor may be contacted at an early stage to assess the likely market and potential financial success of the film. Hollywood distributors adopt a sober business approach and consider factors such as the films genre, target audience and the intended audience, the historical success similar films actors who might appear in the film, and potential Directors. All these factors imply certain appeal film possible audience. Not all movies make a profit only from movies, so a movie with DVD sales and international rights of distribution.
The producer and screenwriter prepare a film box or treatment, and present it to potential investors. They will also be in the field of film actors and Directors, especially the so-called celebrities in order to "attach" them to the project, that is, to promise to work on the film if financing is not secured. Many projects could not move beyond this stage and enter so-called development hell. If the step is successful, the film receives a "green light", someone suggests financial support: typically a major film Studio, film Council or a private investor. Interested parties to negotiate and sign contracts.
Once all parties have complied with and transactions, the film may occur in the experimental period. At this stage, the film should have a clearly defined marketing strategy and target audience.
The development of animated films is slightly different in that it is the Director who develops and passes the story as Executive producer based on a rough storyboard, and its rare for a feature-length script already exists at the time. If the movie will be a green light for further development and preparation of production, the screenwriter is later brought in to prepare the script.
Similarly, the most of any commercial enterprise, the financing of the project of the film is devoted to the study of cinema as the management and procurement of investments. It includes the dynamics of the assets needed to Fund filmmaking and liabilities incurred in the filmmaking process over a period of time from the beginning of the development of guidelines for the management of profits and losses after the allocation under conditions different degrees of uncertainty and risk. Practical aspects of film production Finance can also be defined as the science of money management all the stages of filmmaking. Film Finance aims to cost assets based on their risk level and expected return based on expected profits and protection from losses.
1.2. Stages of production. Pre-production. (Pre-продукции)
At the initial stage of production, every stage of creating the film is carefully thought out and planned. Created a production company and office installed. The film is pre-visualized by the Director and can be storyboards with the help of illustrators and concept artists. The production budget is drawn up to plan expenditures for the film. For major productions, insurance is procured to protect against accidents.
The role of the Director of the budget, to determine the size and type of commands used during filmmaking. Many Hollywood blockbusters employ a cast and crew of hundreds, while a low-budget, independent film may be made of a backbone of eight or nine or less. This is a typical crew positions:
- Storyboard artist: creates visual images to help the Director and production designer communicate their ideas to the production team.
- Director: is primarily responsible for the storytelling, creative decisions and actions of the film.
- Assistant Director ad: manages the shooting schedule and organization of production, among other tasks. There are several types of advertising, each with different responsibilities.
- Manager of production unit: management of production budget and production schedule. They also report, on behalf of the production management, Studio executives or financiers of the film.
- Location Manager: finds and manages film locations. Almost all of the photos there are segments that are shot in a controlled environment on stage Studio sound, and the appearance of a sequence of call for filming on location.
- Producer: hires crew movies.
- Costume designer: creates the clothing for the characters in the film closely interacting with the actors and other departments.
- The make-up and hair designer works closely with the costume designer in order to create a certain view of the character.
- Production designer: one who creates a visual concept of the film, working with the art Director, who directs the art Department, which makes production sets.
- The casting Director: the search for actors to fill parts in the script. This usually requires the actors to dive into the audition, either live in front of a casting Director or in front of the camera, or multiple cameras.
- Choreographer: creates and coordinates the movement and dance – typically for musicals. Some films also credit a fight choreographer.
- Director of photography: head of photo shooting the whole film, controls all film-makers and operators.
- Sound designer: creates a sound concept of the film, working with editor-in-chief of sound. The bollywood-style Indian productions sound designer plays role Director audiography.
- Production sound mixer: head sound Department during production of the movie. They record and mix the audio on set – dialogue, presence and sound effects in mono and ambience in stereo. They work with the boom operator, Director, da, DP and first ad.
- The composer creates the music for the movie. usually not until post-production.
1.3. Stages of production. Production. (Производство)
In production, the film is created and shot. More teams will be recruited at this stage such as the master property, assistant Director, assistant Director, stills photographer, picture editor and sound editors. This is just the most common roles in the movie, the office will be free to create any unique blend of roles to suit different duties during the production of the film.
A typical day of shooting begins with the crew arriving on the set / location by their call time. Actors usually have their own separate times. Since the set works, dressing and lighting can take hours or even days, they are often set up in advance.
The grip, electric and production design crews typically step ahead camera and sound departments: for efficiencys sake, while a scene is removed, they are already preparing for the next.
While the crew prepares their equipment, the actors do their costumes and attend the hair and makeup departments. Actors rehearse the script and blocking with the Director and the camera and sound crews rehearse with them and make the final touches. Finally, an action shot in as many takes as the Director wishes. Most American productions follow a specific procedure:
Assistant Director of ads "picture up!", to inform all that will be recorded, then "quiet, everyone!" As soon as everything is ready shoot ad calls "roll sound", if you take, includes sound, and the production sound mixer will start their equipment, record a verbal slate of the takes the information, and announce "sound speed", or just "speed" when they are ready. The ad with the roll, said "speed!" camera operator once the camera is in record mode. Clapper who already front camera clapperboard, calls "marker!" and slaps it shut. If you take, involves additional or background action ad Cue them "extras!", and last, the Director, telling the actors "action!". The ad may Echo "action" louder on large sets.
The take ends when the Director said "cut!", and camera and sound stop recording. The script supervisor to note the issues of succession, and the sound and teams log technical notes camera for on the appropriate report sheets. If the Director decides additional takes required, repeat the process. Then the team moves to the next camera angle or "setup" until the entire scene is "covered." When shooting finished scene assistant Director declares a "wrap" or "move on" and team "strike," or dismantle, established for this scene.
In the end, the Director approves the next days shooting schedule and a daily progress report is sent to the production management. This includes the report sheets from continuity, sound, and camera commands. Calls are distributed among the cast and crew to tell them when and where to turn on the next day of shooting. Later, Director, producer, other heads of departments, and at times, the cast, may gather to watch that Day or yesterday footage, called dailies, and review their work.
With workdays often lasting 14 or 18 hours in remote locations, film production, as a rule, creates team spirit. When the entire film in the car, or at the end of the production phase, it is common for the SFC to have a party to thank all the cast and crew for their efforts.
At the production stage for feature films, synchronizing work schedules of key cast and crew members is very important, since for many scenes, several actors and most of the crew must be physically present in one place at one time and the celebrity may need to rush from one project to another. Animated films have different workflow at the production phase, that the talent can record their takes in the Studio at different times and may not see each other until the films premiere, while most physical live-action tasks are either not needed, or modeled using different types of animators.
1.4. Stages of production. Post-production. (Пост-продакшн)
Here the video / film is assembled by the editor of the film. The shot film material is edited. Sound, dialogue edit, music and songs composed and recorded if a film is sought to have the result, the sound effects are designed and recorded. Any computer graphics visual effects digitally added the artist. Finally, all sound elements are mixed into "stems", which are then married to picture and the film is fully completed "blocked".
1.5. Stages of production. Distribution. (Распределение)
This is the final stage where the film was released to cinemas or, occasionally, directly to consumer media or direct download from a provider of digital media. The film is duplicated as required either on tape or hard drives and distributed to cinemas for the screening of the show. Published press kits, posters and other promotional materials, and the film is advertised and promoted. B-roll clip may be released to the press based on raw footage shot for the "making of" documentary, which may include the creation of videos and on-set interviews.
Film distributors usually release a film with a party at red-carpet premieres, press releases, interviews with the press preview, screenings, and film festival screenings. Most of the films also contributed their own special website separate from the production company or distributor. For key movies, key employees are often required by contract to participate in promotional tours in which they appear at premieres and festivals and to sit for interviews with many TV, print and online journalists. The largest productions may require more than one promotional tour, in order to rejuvenate demand for each window release.
With the advent of home video in the early 1980s, most movies have several different version of Windows. The First film can be released in a few select theaters, or if the test is good enough, you can go straight to wide release. Further, it excels, as a rule, at different times, several weeks or months apart, in different market segments, like rental, retail, pay-per-view channels, inflight entertainment, cable, satellite, or terrestrial television broadcast. Distribution rights of the film are also usually sold worldwide. Distributor and production share of company profits and control losses.
2. Independent filmmaking. (Независимое кинопроизводство)
The movie also takes place in the mainstream and is commonly called independent cinema. Since the introduction of DV technology, the means of production become increasingly affordable and economically viable. Filmmakers can shoot and edit movies, create and edit sounds and music and mix the final cut on a home computer. However, while the means of production may be democratized, financing, distribution and marketing remain difficult to accomplish outside the traditional system. In the past, most independent filmmakers have relied on film festivals to get their films noticed and sold for distribution and production. However, the Internet has allowed for relatively inexpensive distribution of independent films on websites such as YouTube. As a result, several companies have emerged to assist filmmakers in getting independent movies seen and sold via a regular auction, often adjacent to the film companies in Hollywood. With the proliferation of the Internet, film, independent filmmakers who have decided to abandon the traditional Internet mailing lists now have the ability to reach a global audience.
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