★ Cinema of Nigeria
The cinema of Nigeria, often referred to informally as Nollywood, is composed of films made in Nigeria, its history dates back to as early as the late 19th century and during the colonial era in the early 20th century. History of the origin and development of the Nigerian film industry, sometimes, are generally classified into four main eras: the colonial era, the Golden age, the era of video film and new Nigerian movie.
As the film first came environment in Nigeria in the late 19th century, in the form of the eye viewing device movement picture. They were soon replaced in the early 20th century with improved motion picture exhibition device, with the first set of movies in Glover Memorial hall in Lagos from 12 to 22 August, 1903. The earliest feature film made in Nigeria 1926s palaver produced by Geoffrey Barkas, the film was also the first film to show the Nigerian actors in the role. In 1954, mobile, movie, the cars play at least 3.5 million people in Nigeria, and films produced by a group of Nigerian films were shown in 44 existing cinemas. The first film is fully protected in Nigeria the crew Fincho 1957 Sam Zebba, who is also the first Nigerian film shot in color.
After Nigerias independence in 1960, cinema business is rapidly expanding, creating new theaters. As a result, the contents of Nigeria in the theatres increased in the late 1960s, in 1970-e years, especially plants from Western Nigeria, the result of the former theatre practitioners such as Hubert Ogunde and Moses Olaiya transitioning to the big screen. In 1972, the indigenization decree was issued Yakubu Gowon, which requires the transfer of ownership of a total of 300 cinemas from their foreign masters Nigerians, which led to more Nigerians played an active role in the movie. The oil boom of 1973 to 1978 have also contributed to the spontaneous charge of the cinema culture in Nigeria, as well as increase purchasing power in Nigeria have done a wide range of people disposable income to spend on movie going and home TVs. After several moderate performing movies Papa Ajasco 1984 wale Adenuga was the first blockbuster, having collected approximately ₦61.000 approx. 2015 ₦21.552.673 in three days. A year later, Mosebolatan 1985 Moses Olaiya and went forward to gross ₦107.000 approx. 2015 ₦44.180.499 in five days.
After sunset the Golden era, the Nigerian film industry is experiencing a second boom in the 1990-ies, allegedly marked the release of the straight-to-video film Life in slavery 1992, the industry reached its peak in the mid-2000s years to become the second largest film industry in the world in number of annual films, placing it ahead of the US and behind only India. It began to dominate screens across the African continent, the expansion of Caribbean and Diaspora films which have a significant influence on the culture and the actors of the movie have become a household name across the continent. The boom has also led to a backlash against Nigerian movies in several countries bordering the theories such as "Nigerialization Africa."
Since the mid 2000-ies, during the decline of the video-film era, the Nigerian cinema has undergone some restructuring to improve the quality of products and professionalism in the industry, with the 2009 figure is the designation of the main to turn the modern Nigerian movie. After returning to cinema institutions and the constant return of cinema culture in Nigeria. As at 2013, Nigerian cinema is estimated as the third most valuable film industry in the world based on its values and income.
1. History. (История)
History of cinema in Nigeria dates back to the history of the film itself, especially at the end of the 19th century, using peephole viewer motion picture device. They were soon replaced in the early 20th century with improved motion picture exhibition device, the first films shown in Nigeria were theatres of the Western movies, the first movie shown in the Glover Memorial hall in Lagos from 12 to 22 August, 1903. This year Herbert Macaulay was invited to Nigeria, Balboa and companies in Spain to organize an exhibition tour of the silent cinema in Nigeria.
Although rocky after the closure of his exhibition in Lagos, while he continued the screening of films in other West African countries, the success of this exhibition led to the European merchant, Stanley Jones, to start showing the films in the same Glover memorial hall, starting in November 1903. This led to the influx of more European film exhibitors to Nigeria. The first film was in this early period was on 3 Aug 1904 when they were showing a documentary about the trip to the lake Abeokuta in England.
1.1. History. The colonial era of the late 19th century and the beginning of 1960-ies. (В колониальную эпоху в конце 19 века и начале 1960-х годов)
The colonial filmmakers began to produce films for the local audience in Nigeria from the 1920s years, mainly with the use of mobile cinema as a medium exhibition, the earliest feature film made in Nigeria 1926s chatter is Geoffrey Barkas. The film was also the first film to show the Nigerian actors in the role, as in 1921, there were four other halls show films twice a week in Lagos mainland and every single room in Ebute Metta, and Oshodi. By this time the movie became popular in Lagos with crowds of young and old people are usually waiting at the doors of the auditorium. Religion also helps in the expansion of cinema culture as the Christian missionaries used film for religious propaganda.
The earliest feature film made in Nigeria 1926s confusion produced by Geoffrey Barkas. It was also the first film to show the Nigerian actors in the role, actors Nigerian film shown in the interviews include Dawiya and Yilkuba. The film was shot between sur and Ang people today and States Bauchi plateau in Northern Nigeria and narrates the rivalry between a British district officer and a tin miner, which leads to war. Also in this era had several films in Nigeria, one of the most notable being 1935s Sanders of the river by Zoltan Korda in the Nigerian actor Orlando Martins. Martins also take part in other famous movies, including the man from Morocco 1945, men of two worlds 1946, and so on, and that made Martins as one of the recognized Nigerian actors of his time.
As cinemas became a feature of public life in the developing town of Lagos in the late 1930s to 1940 marked the beginning of large commercial cinemas with branches in strategic parts of the country. One of the first operators in Lagos movie was "West African Pictures company", belonging to S. Mr. Khalil, a member of the Syrian community in Lagos. He has installed in the cinema "Rex" in Ebute Metta, Regal cinema and Royal cinema. Other popular cinema chains include: Capitol theater, Cinema, casino, cinema Kings, the Central Cinema, Rialto cinema, Crown cinema, Odeon cinema, road house cinema, Ikeja, cinema weapons and Glover hall. In 1937 the colonial government to set up a Board of censorship, to resolve issues relating to the establishment and operation of cinemas in the colony. However, the content of Nigerian movies and Nigeria shown in the cinemas during this period are virtually absent, as production and distribution were controlled by foreigners. The movie Entertainment has been complemented by trips Yoruba theatre groups that arose in the 1930s in the 1940s, one of the most prominent was Agbegijo and Alarinjo theatre groups, which featured actors such as duro Ladipo, Ishola Ogunmola, lere pension assets, Oyin Adejobi, among others.
In 1949 and 1950, the year the situation changed, more Nigerian content to be shown in the cinemas, with the alleged drive to "Africanize theatre", a group of Nigerian film was created in order to decentralise colonial film production. Colonial crew, for over a decade, physicians and educational films for the local audience through mobile cinema vans. He also produced newsreels and short documentaries depicting celebrations and the colonial achievements of domestic and foreign audience.
1.2. History. Golden age in the late 1950s - late 1980-ies. (Золотой век в конце 1950-х - конце 1980-х годов)
After Nigerias independence in 1960, cinema business is rapidly expanding, creating new theaters. However, there came a significant inflow of American, Indian, Chinese and Japanese movies, posters of movies from these countries was in all the theatre halls and the actors of these industries has become very popular in Nigeria. In the late 1960s and in the 1970s, the Nigerian productions in cinemas is increasing gradually, especially plants from Western Nigeria, because of the former theatre practitioners such as Hubert Ogunde, Ola Balogun, Moses Olaiya, jab ADU, Isola Ogunsola, Ladi Ladebo, Sanya Dosumu and the garden of tafana, in particular, the transition to the big screen. The first fully commercial Nigerian films shot on film, were also made by the authors of these films in the 1960-ies.
In 1972, concerned about the influx of foreign culture in Nigeria, the indigenization decree of the then head of state Yakubu Gowon, which requires the transfer of ownership of about 300 cinema theatres in the country from their foreign masters Nigerians. In addition, they began more Nigerians play an active role in creating the movie as a result of this policy. This transfer also led to the emergence of Nigerian playwrights, screenwriters and producers of the film, popular literature and theatre works have been adapted into a movie. The oil boom of 1973 to 1978 he made an enormous contribution to the spontaneous rise of cinema culture in Nigeria. The presence of foreign investment led to the construction of several multiplex. In 1976, the 5000-capacity National theater art, Iganmu was built in Lagos. The theater was included with two halls, each of which had a capacity of more than 700 people. At this time, the movie business has become a significant employer of many people, and also serves an important social function, as Nigerians go to the cinema for recreation and entertainment purposes. Increased purchasing power in Nigeria has also done a wide range of people to have an income to spend on cinema and home TVs.
Television broadcasting in Nigeria began in the 1960-ies and has received a lot of support for the government in the first years of its existence. By the middle of 1980-x years, each state has its own radio station. Rights society foreign content on TV, so producers in Lagos began broadcasting local popular theater productions. Many of them were circulated on video, and a small unofficial video trade. In the late 1980-ies, the cinema culture will be in serious decline, and the majority of the Nigerian film manufacturers switched to television productions. The gradual decline of the Golden era of Nigerian movies was due to several factors, including the decline in value of Naira, lack of funding and marketing support, the lack of a standard Studio production equipment, a frequent state of structural adjustment programmes due to military dictatorships, as well as inexperience on the part of practitioners. A sharp decline in film culture as a result, some of the existing cinemas acquired religious organizations and appealed to the Church, others were simply closed. In the early 1990-ies, only a few of the once bright home theater was still in operation, and everything collapsed until 1999.
1.3. History. Home video boom of the late 1980s to mid - 2010s years. (Домашнее видео бум конца 1980-х до середины 2010 - х годов)
The appearance on the market of video film in Nigeria can be traced to the 1980s, when television productions flourished. Jimi Odumosus evil meeting, 1980 American horror film, released directly on TV, was the first production should be a pointer to how profitable a movie directly to video. The film was widely promoted before being aired on television, and as a result, the streets flooded in the next morning with a video copy of the recording. It was reported that the film became a hit in the market Alaba, a commercial area, which later became a distribution center video in this period, and eventually became the center of piracy in Nigeria. Evil face it has become a common phenomenon, especially in the southern Nigerian cities, to watch the video copies of recorded television programs, sold on the streets.
This method was adopted and built on manufacturers and distributors in Alaba market to reinvent the film industry, the Nigerian film culture is undergoing a serious recession. The first movie made on video in Nigeria was 1988s Meji Soso, produced by Ade Ajiboye. The film was also shown in several theaters available at the time. Subsequently, Alade Aromire produced Ekun 1989 on the video that was shown at the National theatre, Iganmu. However, the boom experienced in this era is already began Kenneth Nnebues living in bondage in 1992. Nnebue had an excess number of imported video cassettes which he then made his first film on video. Although living in slavery is often portrayed in the media as "the first promotional video of the film", Some historians argue that the video-film industry was already on the rise before to live in slavery.
As of 2004, at least four or five films were produced every day in Nigeria. Nigeria now movies already dominate TV screens all over the African continent and in the Diaspora. The actors of the film also became a household name across the continent, and the films that had a significant impact cultures in many African countries, from clothes to speech and the use of Nigerian slangs. This is because Nigerian movies, said "sympathy" stories that made foreign films "collect dust" on the shelves of video stores, although they cost a lot less.
According to the filmmakers cooperative of Nigeria, every movie, in Nigeria, the potential audience of 15 million people in Nigeria and about 5 million outside Nigeria. No time, the industry became the third largest producer of films in the world. However, this does not translate to frankly commercial film industry, when compared with other major film hubs around the world, what can the industry was approximated At a total of about 250 million. since most of the produced films were cheaply made. The film industry regardless of whether became a major employer in Nigeria. In 2007, with the total number 6.841 registered video clubs and about 500.000 unregistered, the estimated revenue from sales and rentals of movies in Lagos state was estimated at ₦804 million US$5 million per week, which adds up to about ₦33.5 billion US$209 million Revenue for Lagos in the year. About 700.000 CDs were sold at the Alaba market on the day, the total revenue generated by the film industry in Nigeria is estimated at ₦522 billion to $ 3 billion per year, with broadcast content is estimated at ₦250 billion 1.6 billion.
At the peak of the video era in 2008 was the second largest producer of films, releasing about 200 films per month. However, at the moment, the Nigerian film industry almost degenerated into "the industry hopeless", with the invasion of several people who dont know a thing about film making, and piracy was at its peak. Combat the threat of piracy, among other issues, has become a tough nut to crack, as a result, most investors Alaba cartel ", which control almost 90% of bets in the video industry, began to direct their money in other business ventures. The sunset of the era of home video due to several factors, such as the refusal of the government to provide support and funding, lack of formal and effective indigenous film distribution infrastructure and increase the cost of production in Nigeria.
1.4. History. New Nigerian movies of the mid 2000-ies - present. (Новые нигерийские фильмы середины 2000-х годов - по настоящее время)
This is a new phase in the Nigerian movie where there was a major shift in the way that the films production, from a video format, using the technique of cinema, which presents movies made in the Golden era. A few years into the 21st century, Nigeria will begin to feel the growth of cinemas, which was originally structured for middle and upper class. The silverbird group is the first company to launch a series of new cinemas in major cities in Nigeria are mostly located in affluent areas and counties. He launched a chain of cinemas in 2004, beginning with silverbird Galleria in Victoria island, Lagos. In silverbird Galleria is a large shopping center with an upscale movie theater and a variety of restaurants, where Mercantile activity. It gives more reasons to visit places not only to watch movies, but more of a social activity and a modified form of entertainment outside of film. This trend is another likely explanation, as the death of a Nigerian movie culture in the 1980-ies, which could be a result of the unfashionable look of cinemas Golden era.
The silverbird cinema in establishing started showing Nigerian movies at the highest quality produce, discouraging the poor filmmaking. The first New wave film to be shown at the cinema was the Yoruba-language film Irapada 2006 Qunli Afolayan, which was shown at silverbird Galleria in Lagos. Experiment silverbird was very successful, and as a result, the group has opened several branches in the cinema in Lagos and other cities of the country. Shortly after the creation of the following cinemas, Genesis Deluxe cinemas, ozone cinemas also began the creation of competition in the movie business. Much later, in the 2010s, cinema, cocktail bar and came into the picture, which leads to having more movie theaters in the country, especially outside of the rich neighborhoods.
Several grants were launched by the government of Nigeria to ensure high-quality content in Nigerian movies. In 2006 the project "Nollywood" was launched by the Nigerian government, in conjunction with the "EcoBank". The project provides for ₦100 million U.S. dollars 781.000 Nigerian filmmakers to produce high quality films and to Finance multi-million Naira distribution network across the country during this period. In 2010, the administration of President goodluck Jonathan began ₦30 billion 200 million U.S. dollars, "the Creative industry and entertainment industry," the intervention Fund, financed by Bank of industry, Boi, in conjunction with the Nigerian Export-import Bank NEXIM. This grant, although dubbed as a spin-off of the project "Nollywood", was for the entire Nigerian creative arts and entertainment industry. However, the vision of the grant for the film industry to help more Nigerian filmmakers in training, funding, and assistance in creating the necessary infrastructure for the industry. In 2013, a new small grants ₦3 billion 20 million U.S. dollars were once again awarded exclusively to Nollywood, and especially for the production of high quality films and sponsor Directors for formal training in film schools. Also in 2015, the branch of the Bank launched by another program "NollyFund" with the aim of providing financial support in the form of loans to producers of the film.
Popular 2009 Thriller Film figure, generally considered to be a game-changer that increased media attention to the "new Nigerian cinema" revolution. The film was a critical and commercial success in Nigeria, and it was also screened at international film festivals in 2010, the YHC film by Chineze Anyaene, ahead of the figure will be the highest grossing Nigerian film, a record he held for four years until he was captured in 2014 Half of a yellow sun 2013. By 2016, this entry was held a wedding, the film Kemi Adetiba.
By the end of 2013, the industry reportedly hit a record income ₦of 1.72 trillion to $ 11 billion. As of 2014, the industry is ₦853.9 billion US$5.1 billion, making it the third most valuable film industry in the world after USA and India. It contributed about 1.4% to Nigerias economy this is due to the increase in the number of high-quality movies and more formal methods of distribution.
Unlike the era of home video films of the new wave, as a rule, significantly improved quality, with significantly large budgets, an average of ₦40 million to$250.000 and ₦120 million to $750.000. These films are the production of time to take months or even period in years far from films in video format, which usually shot within a few days or weeks. Other notable improvements in the new series include: a more subtle performances from the actors, differs from outright melodrama that make up the era of video, more practical, more logical and generally better stories. Themes explored in these films are often characterized by consciously cosmopolitan themes as most of the Directors are relatively young. Correct copyright and distribution system remains one of the main objectives of the new Nigerian cinema.
2. The influx of Ghanaian actors. (Приток ганский актеры)
About 2006 until the end of 2007, the Nigerian Director Frank Raja the Araz had signed a contract with the Ghanaian production company Venus films, which involved helping to introduce Ghanaian actors into the mainstream Nollywood. This cooperation eventually led to the extreme popularity of certain Ghanaian actors such as van vicker, Jackie Appiah, Majid Michel, Yvonne Nelson, John Dumelo, Nadia Buari and Yvonne Okoro, perhaps, as much as their Nigerian counterparts. In addition, for many years, due to the high cost of film production in Nigeria, the Nigerian filmmakers were forced to make movies outside Lagos in order to reduce costs, reflecting the Exodus of film production in Hollywood from Los Angeles to cities like Toronto and Albuquerque, a process known as" runaway production ”. Some other manufacturers as a result began to shoot in cities such as Accra, Ghana, directing the savings to investment in the best equipment, many of them are trying to make their films on the big screen.
In 2013, today Nigerian entertainment revealed that the Ghana actors had 60 percent of the total market share per year. A poll conducted by the newspaper showed that out of 184 movies posted on Nollytuned.com Nigerian streaming website, during the period from April to August, 2013, Ghanaian actors played a leading role, at least 93 of them. It was also reported that high demands are placed on the actions of Ghanaian video stores. In the first edition of Africa magic viewers award awards AMVCA in 2013, Ghana, Jackie Appiah was awarded Best actress in a leading role. Year Appiah was again awarded Best actress’ at the Nollywood and African film critics NAFCA. Ghanaian actors Majid Michel was also awarded several awards Nollywood.
Sam Onanuga, a Nigerian writer blames the trend on the reluctance of the established Nigerian acts, to take part in more of the movies on video. With the emergence of new Nigerian cinema, more Nigerian acts wanted roles on the big screen to enhance their resume, refusing to appear in videos, Ghanaian actors as a result took advantage of this as they become more noticeable in Nigerian movies that have already been taking a down turn at this time, but still very popular.
This development caused the attention of the media, mainly the fear that the Ghanaians for jobs meant for Nigerians. While some industries, such as Bob Manuel inhospitable to development, others like mercy Aigbe, Belinda Effah, and Yvonne Dzhegede saw the long-awaited event, noting that the industry is big enough for everyone, and that other major hubs around the world, the presence of other nationalities. Theresa Edem says:" the United Africa sells any day, any time. Its been a great partnership so far. They added color to Nollywood and they brought about a healthy competition. Emem Isong, a Nigerian producer comments:" it fosters unity and integration, and its not a bad thing.”
Some Ghanaian media on the other hand believes that the brain drain” from Ghana. However, the Ghanaian Director Frank Fiifi Gharbin, expressed satisfaction with the development, saying:" should not be a lot of noise Ghanaian actors in Nollywood. For us it is a good development. It shows that our actors beginning to gain fame and be accepted in the world.”
3. Effect. (Эффект)
Enhancing cooperation between Nigeria and Ghana since the middle of 2000-ies has led to a revival of the film industry Ghanas. However, many Ghanaian productions belong to a neighbor and distributed by Nigerian marketers due to Nigerias bigger market. Nigerian filmmakers usually have Ghanaian actors in Nigerian movies as well, and this has led to the popularity of Ghanaian actors almost like their Nigerian counterparts. Nigerian actors also starred in some Ghanaian products, for a film to capture a wider audience. Van vicker, a popular Ghanaian actor, has starred in many Nigerian movies. As a result of this cooperation, Western viewers often confused Ghanaian movies to Nigerian movies and count their sales as one of them, however, they are two independent industries that sometimes share the colloquial "Nollywood".
4. The popularity and attractiveness. (Популярность и привлекательность)
In 2009, UNESCO rating of Nollywood and the second large film industry in the world after Indian cinema in terms of output.
The Nigerian film industry has a strong following in the African Diaspora in Europe, especially in the UK.
4.1. The popularity and attractiveness. Africa. (Африка)
With 2000 years of Nigerian movies began to dominate television screens across the African continent and in the Diaspora. The actors of the film also became a household name across the continent, and in the movies influenced cultures in many African countries, from the ways of enrichment of speech and to use Nigerian slang. This was due to the fact that Nigerian films told the "sympathy" stories that made foreign films gathering dust on the shelves of video stores, even if they will cost much less.
So the overwhelming popularity has also led to a backlash against Nigerian movies in some countries, for example, there are cases when shops selling Nigerian movies, was raided by police in Ghana, according to them, "they are struggling not to be colonized by Nigerian movies". A number of other countries have also introduced protectionist measures, some of which include the introduction of parasitic taxes on production houses who want to shoot films in their countries. In July 2010, Ghana began to demand in the amount of$1.000 from visiting Nigerian actors and$5.000 from producers and Directors. Democratic Republic of the Congo also tried to ban Nigerian films. Jean Rusch, champion of national art in Niger, compared Nollywood to the AIDS. He stated that there seems to be "Nigerianization" of Africa, worrying that the whole continent came to snap "his fingers, the Nigerian way."
4.2. The popularity and attractiveness. Europe. (Европа)
The Nigerian film industry has a strong following in the African Diaspora in Europe, especially in the UK.
5. Organizations and events. (Организаций и событий)
- Directors Guild of Nigeria DGN.
- The actors Guild of Nigeria AGN: a Union that regulates and represents the Affairs of the screen actors in Nigeria and abroad. It is headed by the President-elect.
- Africa movie Oscar mother: is an event in Nigeria that rewards excellent films in the African film industry. It was created in 2005 and is considered the most prestigious award in Nollywood and the African continent. It is also the most eager awards and events in the African movie world.
- Best of Nollywood awards.
- Africa Magic Viewers Award-Winning.
- Nollywood Movies Awards. (Nollywood Фильмы Награды)
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- home video era, is a period in Nigerian cinema typically from the late 1980s early 1990s to mid 2010s, when Nigerian films were made using affordable
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